This report was prepared by Eve de Coning (consultant) under the supervision of Alexia Taveau of the Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling Section at the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Special gratitude is extended to Celso Coracini, Ian Munro, Morgane Nicot, Ric Power, Riikka Puttonen, and Fabrizio Sarrica at UNODC, Vienna.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is the guardian of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) and its supplementary Protocols. The role of UNODC is to support Member States in the implementation of these instruments. The Office aims to provide Member States with targeted research on issues that require particular attention. Following a series of issue papers focusing on such diverse topics as: smuggling of migrants by air; combating trafficking in persons in accordance with the principles of Islamic law; organized crime involvement in trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants; and a short introduction to migrant smuggling, UNODC undertook in September 2010 a study on the occurrence of transnational organized crime in the fishing industry, with a particular focus on three types of organized crimes: trafficking in persons, smuggling of migrants, and illicit drugs trafficking, and links to other forms of criminal activity.
The framework for the research is the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its relevant additional Protocols to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (Trafficking in Persons Protocol), and against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air (Smuggling of Migrants Protocol).